The aim of this review is to address the recent advances regarding the use of pharmacological agents to target transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in cancer and their potential application in therapeutics. Physiologically, TRP channels are responsible for cation entry (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+) in many mammalian cells and regulate a large number of cellular functions. However, dysfunction in channel expression and/or activity can be linked to human diseases like cancer. Indeed, there is growing evidence that TRP channel expression is altered in cancer tissues in comparison with normal ones. Moreover, these proteins are involved in many cancerous processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, as well as resistance to chemotherapy. Among the TRP superfamily, TRPC, TRPV, TRPM and TRPA1 have been shown to play a role in many cancer types, including breast, digestive, gliomal, head and neck, lung and prostate cancers. Pharmacological modulators are used to characterize the functional implications of TRP channels in whole-cell membrane currents, resting membrane potential regulation and intracellular Ca2+ signalling. Moreover, pharmacological modulation of TRP activity in cancer cells is systematically linked to the effect on cancerous processes (proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs). Here we describe the effects of such TRP modulators on TRP activity and cancer cell phenotype. Furthermore, the potency and specificity of these agents will be discussed, as well as the development of new strategies for targeting TRP channels in cancer.
This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visithttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10
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